Doino Gramatik

doyno gramatik    One of the first biographers of Doino Gramatik Milan T. Radivoev (Pope Andrey Robovski, 1920) had written and kept for the generation the following tradition, heard from old people of Elena almost contemporaries of Doino:
   Around the end of the seventeenth century, after some turmoil in the Ottoman Empire, "a space of 100-150 Janissaries arrived in the village of Dren Elensko in Radovskiya Pass (Hainboaz now Pass of the Republic) ... with himself led several captured Bulgarian boys ... ". One of them was rescued by a childless tranchanin. His name was Stoyan, but he was called by his peers "robcheto" which passed sobriquet time to spare on his descendants-The Robovska family.
    Stoyan has had a son who he called Stanio, the name of his deliverer and benefactor. There are some children from Stanio from whom only two are known – Miho and Doino. As they grew up these two brothers were taken to Elena to learn reading and writing at Hilendar Confessor Hadji Sergius and serve him. They settled here in Elena, got married and became progenitors of two separate generations. The older brother opened a grocery shop in Elena and he became known in the neighborhood nicknamed "Bacall Miho." His descendants are still called "Bakalovtsi." Bacall Miho with "local Subash Osman punter in 1782 was killed by people for abuses."    Doino was born in the Middle of the seventeenth century. No one knows where and when he has learned the goldsmith craft. He has been a skillful craftsman. He even built a wooden clock. "Then learned from Stoyan Grammar teacher in the first half of the eighteenth century in Elena to bind with mexia any religious books on their covers to print some images of the Gospel, which he poured from honey." He became a teacher. He taught in his home. He was called “grammar”. Then he made a copy of The History of Paisii from the second copy of Sofronii which went to the Kotel, along with his fellow Ivan Karshev. Shortly afterwards he became a priest, as evidenced by the inscriptions on the two ledges copper Saha stored in his sons' P. D. "(pop Doyno) - 1786.
    “From the library of pope Doino, and if it be damaged on November 22’ 1877 from the invasion of Suleiman Pasha in Elena there are some printed books and manuscripts. An enormous manuscript, except ecclesiastical and religious stories, contains speeches against fairies and witches. On one of the inner sheets of this manuscript is written: "I wrote a little book.” In 1802 pope Doino bought from a Hilendar deacon an old Russian writing in which it was told about the separation of The Church in the time of Patriarch Photios. Besides this that book includes many interesting information about the old Bulgarian history. A collection with poems of Holy Scriptures was found, it was printed in 1863, with covers older than the book on which was written the year 1707.
    Close to the known in Doino Gramatiks’ library we can assign the copy of the History of Paisii, who had taken off in 1784 as well as the binded close to his work of Hristofor Gefarivich – “Stematografia” (1741), kept in The National Library in Sofia. From the copy of The History we learn a lot about the culture and the civil positions of this writer of the Bulgarian national revival.
    B. Angelov in his book “Contemporaries of Paisii” specifies which particular parts of "History" were supplemented by the hand of Doino.
     1.       The supplement for Noah and his three sons, Japheth, Shem and Ham. "The story - writes B. Angelov - is not limited to what Paisii told about what is said in the Bible itself, in which the writer leads to. In this story he is far more detailed and focused… The logical outcome of the whole story is the following phrase imbued with patriotic feeling and which proclaims the Slavic peoples to the clan of Afet:
“And from that clan of Afet came The Slavic Family, that is great on name Moscov, Poles, Czechs, Croix, Serban, Bolgar, and Moravians who have been the strongest in the world.
      2.       Extensive is the addition in which is told about the settling separately of The Slavic nations… of the people who inhabited Scandinavia homeland were also Russians, Serbs and Bulgarians; when multiplied many, they left "to seek a good and rich land. And where they liked the land they landed there.” They have had three leaders after whose names they named Serbin voivode, Mosoh voivoda. Bulgarians have lived around Volga, from where came their names”.
      3.       The third addition is about The Slavic nation - here once again is stressed the thought among the other nations added to Afets’ clan. The Slavic nation was the most famous: But from them these three languages have been the strongest and the greatest – Moskov, Serbian and Bulgarian. As the Bulgarians, who lived around Volga, have multiplied a lot, they have gone south to the Balkans to seek for new lands. This happened in 378, as Paisii had told, with whom again get in touch with the story”.
      4.       5. Two additions about king Samuil are interesting, taken, as Doino Gramatik says, from another history. Surely he does not specify the book from which he borrowed, but it is undisputed that the quotation come from a famous and passionate book written from Croatian poet Andrija Cacic-Mioshich "Razgovor ugodni naroda slovinskoga".
      6.       7. Particularly important additions in Elena copy of Paisiis’ History are two poems of Doino Gramatik, one about King Krum and the other about Samuel King and his daughter Kossara. They are spoken about for the first time in our literature. Remarkable is the fact that Doino Gramatik had found necessary to put these poems to show the life and the exploits of the Bulgarian kings. An extremely important fact is that these poems, although translated, are the first works of literature in Bulgarian secular themes-love and war. This is a great merit of Doino Gramatik because he removes the age-old traditions of religious poetry connected with the life of a saint, or talking about religious mystical feeling. Contrary to everything said in the poems the battle victory of Krum over proud Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus became famous for his strong love of Samuil's daughter Kossara and captured by her father Serbian king Vladimir. Immediately after the song about Krum, Doino Gramatik explains to his reader:
    “Let no one wonder that it’s well written…” . Therefore, he wants to explain the concept of a poem; we meet in it one of the first definitions in the country set out in the theory of literature. This is a phenomenon for the century - the growing penetration of the culture of Western Europe and Russia expands the range of cultural interests and activities among the Bulgarian cultural reader."
    B. Angelov stresses that Doino Gramatik shows critical attitude to his source – he doesn’t copy literally but combines and retells separate passages, which he doesn’t like. In this case he awakes national consciousness, because not everything about Bulgarian history is considered useful. "Furthermore, " Doino Gramatik` s songs are much shorter than in the original... There are 75 verses in Cacic-Mioshich song about Krum and Nicephorus; and in Doinos’-54; The song about King Vladimir in Cacic-Mioshich contains 150 verses, while in Elena copy they are only 104 verses."
    “The scholar doesn’t dare to get involved in its translating, but in spite of his thought that he translates it in Serbian, he makes certain features in his language - phonetic, morphological, syntactic, and lexical.”
     “There are a few diversions in the epilogue” of the copy. These are the most important features of Doino’ s copy – shown by B. Anglov in his article about Doino Gramatik.
    During the attack of the kardzhalii in 1800 Doino Gramatik leads the population in its defense. In the same year a three-membered delegation went to Constantinople to ask for permission to build a fortress in Elena. In the new-built Church “Saint Nikola” on a specially prepared stone slab-Chronicle in 1805 he immortalizes the incident and stresses that the church is built on the foundations of the old, and then it’s burned from "agarian robbers."
    An old-printed Russian writing is preserved in a Museum, found in the niches of the Church “Assumption of Virgin Mary”. There are additional facts about the binding and coping skill of Doino Gramatik from the last years of his life.
    The book, after a serious damage, in all its 294 papers has been stuck, became stronger and typed often just one page. The handwriting everywhere artfully resembles printing. For the first time here we can see the true writer master Doino Gramatik.
     On the first ten pages on the top white backgrounds unknown hand has written an explaining note:
    “This book, named “Minei” belongs to Church “Saint Nikola” in village Elena and had been hidden from the kardzhalii – in 1812 from 1 to 23 of April where there was need the books to be buried in the ground. Konstantin Irechek had heard about the same practice from adults in Elena.
    It is already known from his biographer Milan Radivoev that Doino Gramatik has a golden hand. In a connection with the binding mastership he has used a cuprum plastic. With this his art is connected another deed – his mastership in the stone plastic. It is already mentioned about his stone chronicle in the Church “Saint Nicola”. However this is not his only act in this type. The inscriptions of stone fountain “Karayoanovata”, built on 1754 and restored after (1813) the father of Ilarion and "Hadzhikrastevata" - built in 1814 with … of "Krystju Veliku and podruzhie ego Boyka" are made probably by him. Uniformity of the material, size, composition and the similar text in the captions of the two fountains issued by the same master. Who is he? Even these two titles are completely similar. On the other side, they look like the title in the church, which is “written by Doino”. The secret is revealed. This fact has an important meaning for the explanations of some moments in the biography of Doino.
    To the décor of the two fountains are added two sculptured lions which stand up vis-à-vis and carry the inscriptions. They are such as the lion on the Bulgarian flag in “Stematography” by Christopher Zhefarovich, which Doino has had in 1771.
    What has been the motive about that? Of course - patriotic. With the images of the lions Doino has expressed the flag of the Bulgarian state system and he has emphasized in a special way the pride of ethnical identification. The two fountains are positioned in the most important places in the village. The first – beside the Kuiumdzhi bazaar in the village, the second – on the road to church “saint Nicola”, the Convent, The School and The Clock Tower. It can be supposed that he has made similar decors of the fountains.
    The effect of that has been really striking. The population of Elena perceived the lions as a symbol of the village. So testified Marko Ditchev: “Inscriptions with images of the lions… there was another town fountains but after the Liberation was falsified and then the inscriptions disappeared”.
    At the same place he stresses that in Elena from unknown ages the native flag – the lions are depicted not just on the fountains and on the tombstones. There are such tombstones with images of lions and crying willows with dozens on the tombs in the garden of the Church “Saint Nicola” and “Assumption of Virgin Mary”. As a confirmation of that serves the fountain made by Podkovacheski build in Elovska quarter in 1876, on which we see depicted lions, carrying inscriptions, but far less inartistic.
    These inscriptions give us reasons to accept that Doino Gramatik was alive in 1814, he has was vital and with awake patriotic sense. Therefore, we have to correct the position that he died in 1810 - according to B. Angelov or “around 1800, or around 1810” – according to Milan Radivoev.